Methamphetamine-induced rhabdomyolysis may be due to psychomotor agitation or seizures. Methamphetamine abusers would combine the drug with illicit substances, such as heroin or barbiturates. Chronic methamphetamine abuse has been reported to result in histopathological changes in the brain. Dependent methamphetamine abusers were 3 times more likely to have psychotic symptoms than nondependent abusers, and the prevalence of psychosis in methamphetamine abusers was reported to be 11 times higher than in the general population. In , the Food and Drug Administration restricted amphetamine and dextroamphetamine inhalers to prescription-only distribution.
Evidence suggests that several factors impair the normal function of DAT in the presence of methamphetamine. Further, as a weak base, the accumulation of methamphetamine within these vesicles leads to a disruption of the electrochemical gradient necessary for DA storage. In , methamphetamine tablets under the commer- cial name Methedrine were introduced to the market by the Burroughs Wellcome Company. The primary use of anhydrous ammonia is as a farm fertilizer. Similar in structure to amphetamine, an added N- methyl group confers added lipid solubility, allowing for more rapid crossing of the blood— brain barrier Fig 1. This article reviews the history of methamphetamine use and abuse, describes its mechanism of action and pathophysiology, delineates adverse health effects, and describes current epidemiologic trends. However, methamphetamine also affects serotonergic, noradrenergic, and glutamatergic systems as well. Currently, men and women abuse methamphetamine equally, unlike many other illegal drugs where there is a male predominance among abusers. Methamphetamine intoxication is associated with restlessness, insomnia, hallucinations, paranoia, and disturbance of consciousness. The Guidelines for Methamphetamine Laboratory Cleanup provides technical guidance for state and local personnel responsible for methamphetamine meth lab cleanup. Dainippon Pharmaceutical Company made Philopon available in Japan in This reaction occurs under pressure and the bottle must be frequently unscrewed to release pressure. Specifically, drugs containing these precursors must be stored behind a pharmacy counter; purchase requires proof of identification, and purchases are limited to a maximum of 3. Dependent methamphetamine abusers were 3 times more likely to have psychotic symptoms than nondependent abusers, and the prevalence of psychosis in methamphetamine abusers was reported to be 11 times higher than in the general population. One early study reported that even at the recommended therapeutic dose of an amphetamine inhaler, most subjects experienced pallor, flushing, palpitations, and increases in pulse rate and blood pressure. Ephedrine was recognized to be similar to epinephrine, which was also isolated around the turn of the 20th century, but could be taken orally, had a longer duration of action, produced more pronounced and dependable CNS stimulation, and had a larger therapeutic index. Clandestine laboratories are often, although not exclusively, set up in rural areas because of the strong odors associated with methamphetamine production and are moved frequently to prevent detection. Methamphetamine- induced seizures may occur in persons with or without any past medical history of seizure disorder. When the lab is mobile, it presents a risk to wherever it happens to be, as demonstrated in November , a rolling meth lab that was carrying anhydrous ammonia exploded on Interstate 24 in southwest Kentucky,  prompting law enforcement to shut down the freeway. Numerous users gradually increased the doses they used as they developed tolerance to the effects of the drugs. Starting with Benzedrine in , most of these nasal inhalers were removed from the market by The chemical properties of methamphetamine also contribute to such cytoplasmic DA elevations. In response to the burgeoning diversion of legally produced amphetamine-type stimulants to the criminal underworld, the USA federal government passed the Drug Abuse Control Amendments of , which required record keeping throughout the manufacture, distribution, prescription, and sale of these medications. Current methamphetamine users have impaired performance on tests of memory, the ability to manipulate information, attention, and abstract thinking as compared to matched controls, al- though they showed no impairment in psychomotor speed, intelligence, or verbal fluency. Methamphetamine users have been reported to be more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors than nonusers. Pfeiffer Company began producing Valo inhalers that contained mg of methamphetamine. The first method used in the manufacture of illicit methamphetamine was developed in the s and involved the precursor chemical phenylpropanone P2P.
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